Among the disasters that visited Capitol Hill on Wednesday, the fact that the people who infiltrated Congressional offices had unfettered access to IT assets for several hours ranks rather low.
One of the most iconic images of Wednesday's events was a picture of the home screen of Speaker Nancy Pelosi's office computer, abandoned in haste after a mob broke into the Capitol building, forcing Congress and staffers to retreat to safer locations. By design, nothing on Pelosi's computer was classified: Members of Congress have to enter a protected area room in the building to view secret documents, as you'll recall from last year's impeachment proceedings when several House Republicans stormed into such a room in protest because they were denied access to documents their leaders could access.
There could have been plenty of unclassified information that would still be considered sensitive, such as Pelosi's contacts and email correspondence. And it's fair to say that congressional IT practices are somewhat haphazard; some computers might have been encrypted, while some might not have even had password protection, according to security experts.
As Katie Moussouris, CEO and founder of Luta Security, told The Washington Post: "There's an old saying, if an attacker has physical access to your computer, it's not your computer anymore."
Still, any lasting cybersecurity damage from the breach is likely to be quite limited.
A laptop from Sen. Jeff Merkley's office was taken, but there were no other reports of missing computers. Representatives from Merkley's office did not respond to an inquiry as to whether or not that laptop was encrypted; computers purchased for Senate offices after October 2018 were required to have encryption technology turned on at the urging of Merkley's fellow Oregon senator, Ron Wyden, but it's not clear when the laptop in question was purchased.
There's a far greater threat to information security in the Capitol Building, and it doesn't require access to the building itself. As we've seen with the SolarWinds hack that infiltrated several executive branch agencies last year, the biggest threats to government information security aren't wearing red hats and breaking windows; they're coming from overseas through the internet to steal sensitive data.
And in any event, the Capitol Building is not exactly the most secure facility controlled by the government, as Wednesday's events show. Any foreign intelligence agent bent on figuring out what the House Committee on Ways and Means is up to would probably have better luck accessing computers by infiltrating the cleaning staff or mingling with visitors on a post-pandemic tour of the building.
The incident does shine a light on congressional cybersecurity practices, which are far less robust than the requirements of the executive branch.
In the House, members of Congress are responsible for procuring their own IT assets just like any of us, whereas in the Senate, technology purchases are made through the office of the Sergeant at Arms. Email and file servers in the House are managed by the chief administrative officer, a non-partisan position. In the Senate, that duty falls to the Sergeant at Arms, who serves at the pleasure of the party in power.
"Images on social media and in the press of vigilantes accessing congressional computers are worrying," said Rep. Anna Eshoo, a Democrat from California, in a statement. "I asked the Chief Administrative Officer of the House to conduct a full assessment of threats based on what transpired yesterday, and the CAO has already taken important steps to that end. I have confidence that House and Senate IT and cybersecurity professionals are taking the matter seriously."
On Thursday afternoon, the CAO updated members of the House saying that administrators took "efforts including issuing commands to lock computers and laptops and shutting down wired network access to prevent inappropriate access to House data." It's not clear what, if any, action was taken on the Senate side.
Executive branch staff are almost universally required to use two-factor authentication to log into their work computers, but such a requirement does not exist in the legislative branch. Congresspeople are essentially small-business owners who can require their staff to follow whatever cybersecurity practices they deem necessarily, including, well, nothing.
There's certainly a chance that a few individuals among the mob that breached the Capitol Building could have read less-than-flattering emails sent by or to members of Congress, and could use those emails to damage a few reputations.
But the most likely outcome of Wednesday's breach is that a lot of passwords have already been changed, or will be changed in the next few days.
Update: This article was updated at 4:07 p.m. PT to include a statement from Rep. Anna Eshoo, and corrected at 5:17 p.m. PT to fix the spelling of her first name.