Protocol | Policy

Twitter’s own research shows that it’s a megaphone for the right. But it’s complicated.

Twitter shared its own research today that showed its algorithms amplify right-leaning political content more than left-leaning.

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Twitter plans to announce a third-party partnership so that other outside researchers can validate the team's findings.

Image: Apple/Protocol

Twitter is publicly sharing research findings today that show that the platform's algorithms amplify tweets from right-wing politicians and content from right-leaning news outlets more than people and content from the political left.

The research did not identify whether or not the algorithms that run Twitter's Home feed are actually biased toward conservative political content, because the conclusions only show bias in amplification, not what caused it. Rumman Chowdhury, the head of Twitter's machine learning, ethics, transparency and accountability team, called it "the what, not the why" in an interview with Protocol.

"We can see that it is happening. We are not entirely sure why it is happening. To be clear, some of it could be user-driven, people's actions on the platform, we are not sure what it is. It's just important that we share this information," Chowdhury said. The META team plans to conduct what she called a "root-cause analysis" to try to discover the "why," and that analysis will likely include creating testable hypotheses about how people use the platform that could help show whether it's the way users interact with Twitter or the algorithm itself that is causing this uneven amplification.

Twitter didn't define for itself what news outlets and politicians are "right-leaning" or belong to right-wing political parties, instead using definitions from other researchers outside the company. The study looked at millions of tweets from politicians across seven countries and hundreds of millions of tweets of links from news outlets, not tweets from the outlets themselves.

Chowdhury emphasized that Twitter doesn't already know what causes certain content to be amplified. "When algorithms get put out into the world, what happens when people interact with it, we can't model for that. We can't model for how individuals or groups of people will use Twitter, what will happen in the world in a way that will impact how people use Twitter," she said. Twitter algorithms cannot just be opened up and examined for biases, and the home feed isn't run by just one algorithm. It's a system that works together, creating "system-level complexity."

She speculated that if the analysis doesn't find that the algorithms themselves are designed in a way that creates bias, other reasons for conservative content success could be that some right-wing politicians are better at selling their ideology online, or that the right is more successful at mobilizing support for its ideology. "The purpose is not to dump the responsibility on users here. There is a lot here for us to think about, how to give people more meaningful choice, more meaningful control over their input [to the algorithms], as well as the output that's going on."

Twitter's META team — made up of some of the more renowned technology and algorithm ethicists and critics — promised to share its research with the public when it grew into a powerhouse unit as one of Twitter's 2021 priorities. But actually sharing that research with the world is difficult; Chowdhury and Lindsay McCallum, the Twitter spokesperson who works closely with the META team, described an intense process of debate over how to word and phrase each line in today's statement. While they insisted that there is broad internal support for META's transparency, Chowdhury and McCallum worry about accidentally miscommunicating the complex science behind the research. They know that news articles — like this one — are easily misinterpreted, and that the final takeaway for most people is a pretty diluted version of the research.

Facebook has fallen under massive fire for failing to share the findings of its own social media research, revealed over the last month in a series of leaks to the Wall Street Journal. The company has seemed especially frustrated with how media and politicians have interpreted the leaked findings, and has also tried to emphasize the limitations of researchers' work. While they didn't mention Facebook, Chowdhury and her team have gone to great lengths to do the interpreting of the newly published paper themselves.

Chowdhury also hinted at a coming announcement that Twitter has created a way to share the data used for its work for third-party validation of its scientific papers. While today's announcement doesn't specify what that will look like, Twitter said that it has finalized a partnership that will both allow for the privacy of its users and also give researchers the chance to replicate the study conducted here. "Anybody who makes algorithms and relies on them has the same questions we have," Chowdhury said.

Protocol | China

Chinese ed-tech firms’ poignant pivots

Beijing’s tutoring ban has forced ed tech and private tuition companies to explore new opportunities, from clothing to coffee to agriculture.

Some Chinese online tutoring firms are pivoting away from education. Others continue offering classes, but a different kind.

Photo: Liu Ying/Xinhua via Getty Images

Management at China’s leading tutoring and ed-tech firms has been racking brains in an effort to pivot away from the once-lucrative but now moribund K-9 tutoring business. Pivoting has become a necessity ever since Beijing delivered a devastating blow to the private tutoring industry this past summer by banning many types of after-school tutoring outright.

The Wall Street Journal in November reported that several major Chinese tutoring and ed-tech companies were in discussions with China's government to resume K-9 tutoring, under the condition they run their businesses as nonprofits. But some companies have decided to sever their K-9 operations altogether, exploring completely different businesses: agriculture ecommerce, garment-making and even coffee houses. Others will stay in the business of teaching but place their bets on professional education and “well-rounded education”(素质教育), which is not schoolwork-oriented and instead involves extracurricular activities such as arts, sports, science, technology, engineering and civics.

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Shen Lu

Shen Lu is a reporter with Protocol | China. Her writing has appeared in Foreign Policy, The New York Times and POLITICO, among other publications. She can be reached at shenlu@protocol.com, or via Twitter @shenlulushen.

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Most people don't even realize they're using open banking services today. If they connected their investment and banking accounts in a personal financial management solution or app, they're using open banking. Perhaps they've seen ads about how they can improve their credit score by uploading pay stubs or utility records to that same app – this is also powered by open banking.

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Protocol | Workplace

Calendly thinks it can save you from group meeting scheduling hell

Add another tool to your arsenal for that 15-person, multi-time zone meeting you need to schedule.

Calendly now offers meeting polls.

Image: Calendly

Scheduling a one-on-one meeting over email requires its own multi-email song and dance. But scheduling a meeting for seven people over email is a full-blown nightmare. Add in multiple time zones and incomplete email responses, and you’re deep in a distressingly long email thread. So far, scheduling app Calendly has tackled one-on-one scenarios: The host sends a Calendly link and the invitee chooses the time slot that works for them. Group meetings were still a hassle, despite a few features allowing for round robins or multihost meetings. With the company’s Thursday launch of meeting polls, Calendly joins tools like Doodle and When2meet in solving group scheduling nightmares.

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Protocol | Workplace

CTO to CEO: The case for putting the tech expert in charge

Parag Agrawal is one of the few tech industry CTOs to nab the top job. But the tides may be shifting.

Parag Agrawal’s appointment to Twitter's CEO seat is already alerting a new generation of CTOs that the top job may not be so out of reach.

Photo: Twitter

Parag Agrawal’s ascension to CEO of Twitter is notable for a few reasons. For one, at 37, he’s now the youngest CEO of an S&P 500 company, beating out Mark Zuckerberg. For another, his path to the top as a CTO-turned-CEO is still relatively rare in the corporate world.

His leap suggests that CEO succession trends may be shifting, as technology increasingly takes the center stage in business and strategy decisions not just for tech companies, but for the business world more broadly.

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Michelle Ma (@himichellema) is a reporter at Protocol, where she writes about management, leadership and workplace issues in tech. Previously, she was a news editor of live journalism and special coverage for The Wall Street Journal. Prior to that, she worked as a staff writer at Wirecutter. She can be reached at mma@protocol.com.

Protocol | Workplace

Google contractor says she was fired for 'ungoogley' behavior

According to a charge filed with the National Labor Relations Board, "ungoogley" is Google's term for having a bad attitude.

A contractor at Google staffing firm Modis claims she was fired from her job after asking about pay.

Photo: Future Publishing/Getty Images

A contractor at Google staffing firm Modis claims she was fired from her job for "ungoogley" behavior after asking about holiday pay at a meeting with management, according to a charge filed with the National Labor Relations Board by a lawyer for the Alphabet Workers Union.

Tuesday Carne said in an interview with Protocol that she was fired after just nine days of working in the data contracting facility in South Carolina. Carne's termination letter (which Protocol reviewed) called her behavior at the meeting "unacceptable and 'ungoogley'" and claimed that her behavior was the reason for her firing.

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